Biography Of Sigmund Freud -

Biography Of Sigmund Freud

Biography Of Sigmund Freud


Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) 1939) – Austrian neurologist who was believed to be responsible for establishing psychoanalysis as a field. He is regarded as one of the greatest thinkers from the Twentieth Century, even though some of his ideas were challenged in recent years.

Freud was born on 6 May 1856 at Freiberg within Moravia, Austrian Empire
(now Pribor, Czech Republic) to Hasidic Jewish parents.

Freud was born in Leipzig and Vienna in Austria, where he was educated at an elite school. Freud was an exceptional student, excelling in the study of languages and English literature. He discovered a passion for reading Shakespeare in his original English and he continued to keep it up to this day.

At 17 years old, Freud joined the medical institute at the University of Vienna to study several subjects including physiology, philosophy, and Zoology.

Freud completed his studies in the year 1881 and started working in the Vienna General Hospital. He worked in a variety of departments, including the psychiatric department and mixed medical practice and research like an influential study on the condition of aphasia (1891) along with the negative effects caused by cocaine (1894). Freud was the first advocate of using cocaine to provide pain relief, but it was later that he stopped recommending its use as the dangers were becoming more well-known. Freud was also a pioneer researcher in the area of cerebral palsy.

When he was working in various medical areas, Freud continued his research. He was greatly influenced to some extent by the work of Charles Darwin‘s somewhat modern theories of evolution. He also was a huge fan of Friedrich Nietzsche’s philosophical writings. The other influences that influenced Freud included work about consciousness and the unconscious by authors such as Brentano as well as Theodor Lipps. Freud also studied the art of hypnosis, which was developed by Jean-Martin-Charcot.

The year was 1886. Freud quit his post as a hospital doctor and established his private practice that focused on disorders of the nervous system. A key aspect of his approach was to help patients discuss their most intimate thoughts and emotions, which frequently remained hidden in their unconscious. In the beginning, he utilized the technique of hypnosis but later realized that he could simply request people to share their experiences.

Freud was hoping that by bringing the subconscious thoughts and emotions to the surface and allowing patients to be free of negative feelings and emotions. A different method he invented was “transfer,” where patients projected the negative emotions of others on the psychoanalyst. Freud expressed his costs of examining the dark aspects of the unconscious

“No one who, like me, conjures up the evilest of those half-tamed demons that inhabit the human beast, and seeks to wrestle with them, can expect to come through the struggle unscathed.”

Freud – Dora: An Analysis of a Case of Hysteria (1905)

Freud also placed major importance on having his patients record their dreams and then use them in the analysis. Freud was increasingly using the term “psychoanalysis” to describe his methods.

In forming his perspective on psychoanalysis, Freud also utilized his own experiences with depression, dreams, and emotions from childhood. According to Freud relationships with their mother were especially important since he was a child. Freud believed that he competed for the affection of his mother with his siblings.

Biography Of Sigmund Freud


Biography Of Sigmund Freud


Oedipus Complex

A key aspect of Freud’s work was his understanding of the importance of early sexual experiences for children. Freud developed an idea that posits the Oedipus Complex in which children are born with an unrepressed and unconscious desire to be sexually intimate with their parents of the opposite gender. Freud believed that success in resolving this issue was crucial to the development of a mature self-image and sexuality.


The year was 1899. He wrote ‘ The Interpretation of Dreams The Interpretation of Dreams’, in which he criticized the existing theories of dreams, putting more emphasis upon dreams being unfulfilled dreams. He then applied his theories in a more real-world setting, which resulted in more interest among the general population. The most important works are the Psychopathology of Daily Life (1901), jokes and their relationship with the Unconscious (1905), and Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, released in 1905.

From the early 1900s, Freud’s new theories became increasingly influential – attracting a range of followers, who were interested in the new theory of psychology. Other important members of this group included Wilhelm Stekel – a physician, Alfred Adler, Max Kahane, and Rudolf Reitler. All five members were Jewish. The group discussed new papers, but it was Freud who was considered the intellectual leader of the burgeoning psychoanalysis movement. By 1908, this group had become larger and was formalized as the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.

Between 1909 and 1910, Freud’s theories were becoming increasingly transferred to the English working world. Together with Carl Jung, Freud visited New York in 1909. In an unsubstantiated remark, Freud is said to have said to Jung upon his arrival in New York “They don’t realize that we are bringing them the plague.”

The trip was a huge success and Freud was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by Clark University, Ma. This sparked a lot of media attention and eventually the creation of the American Psychoanalytic Association in 1911.

As the movement expanded it became increasingly philosophical differences, with some members adopting different views. Carl Jung left the movement in 1912, opting to pursue an “analytical psychology’. Following The First World War, Adler and Rank both left the movement for various reasons.

Yet, Freud and the field of psychoanalysis continued to rise in importance. In 1930, Freud was given the Goethe Prize for his contributions to German literature and psychology.

Biography Of Sigmund Freud


In the 1920s, Freud also increasingly tried to apply his theories to other areas like literature, art, history, and the study of anthropology. Freud is generally thought to be a pessimistic persona of human behavior. Wrote in Civilization and its Contradictions (1930), Freud declared:

“I don’t have the strength to stand before my fellow men as a prophet. I bow before their ridicule to provide them with no hope. …”

Nazi Persecution

The year 1933 was when the Nazis took over the throne in Germany The Nazis took over Germany, and Freud as a Jewish writer was added to the list of books that were banned. Freud wryly remarked:

“What is the progress we’re making? In the Middle Ages, they would have killed me. Today, they’re content to burn my books.”

The Nazis frequently burned his books in public. After 1938, Hitler achieved his Anschluss in Germany and Austria which put all Jewish people in danger, particularly intellectuals. Freud as well as others in his position wanted to ward off the growing anti-Semitism and remain in Austria. But the month of March 1938 saw Anna Freud was detained by the Gestapo and he became aware of how dire the situation.  was With the assistance from Ernest Jones (then president of the IPA IPA), Freud and 17 other colleagues were given permission to work in Britain.

But the process of leaving was not easy due to the Nazi group seeking “exit levies”. Freud required the assistance of sympathetic colleagues and acquaintances to conceal bank accounts and obtain the money needed. After leaving Austria, Freud was required to sign a declaration confirming that he was properly and fairly treated. He did this, using humor, and wrote in his own words: ” I can most highly recommend the Gestapo to everyone.

Freud was finally able to leave Austria on the 4th of June, Freud finally left Austria on the Orient Express, arriving in London 6 June. (As an aside Freud’s four older sisters were not able to escape Austria and later be buried at the hands of concentration camps.)

For the rest of his time, Freud lived in Hampstead, England, where he continued seeing patients and work.

By 1923 Freud was diagnosed as having cancer (a consequence of his smoking habits). The surgery was successful in part however, by 1939, the jaw cancer became more severe and he was in extreme discomfort. He passed away on September 23, 1939.

The year 1886 was the time he got married to Martha Bernays; they had six children. The sister of Martha Minna Bernays was also part of the family after her husband passed away.

Biography Of Sigmund Freud


On religion

While the author was of Jewish heritage, Freud rejected conventional monotheistic religion as a fanciful idea and was merely a necessary evolutionary step for mankind. In Moses as well as Monotheism, Freud acknowledged that religion played a part in encouraging research into the undiscovered.

Legacy of Freud


Freud played a key role in the rise of psychoanalysis. His theories have been controversial, but they have also served as a reference for those who agree with Freud or for those who have the opposite viewpoint.

Yet, despite the huge influence of Freud his ideas, they are being challenged by people who do not believe in the significance that he attributed to sexual experience in childhood. In addition, it is controversial to Freud’s notion that humans suffer from an uncontrollable ‘death impulse’.

Others have criticized Freud for his lack of research instead of relying on his intuition and his sense of judgment.


Freud’s work has been performed on several female patients. A lot of his studies focus on Viennese women. He famously stated:

“The biggest question that hasn’t been answered and that I’ve not been in a position to answer despite my 30 years of studying the feminine spirit is, “What are women need? ‘”

In the 1960s as well as the 1970s The feminist movement was extremely skeptical of Freud’s theories. Simone de Beauvoir criticized psychoanalysis in her book ” The Second Sex“. In Feminine Mystique Betty Friedan considered Freud to be a Victorian-style conception’ of women.

But, despite the huge controversy over Freud’s theories people believe that he was among the top innovative and influential thinkers who created a variety of methods to deal with issues of the unconscious, personal relationships, and even dreams.


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