Biography of Meghnad Saha -

Biography of Meghnad Saha

Biography of Meghnad Saha

Meghnad Saha

Born: 6 October 1893, Shauratoli, Dhaka (now Bangladesh)

Job/Position: Astronomer (Astrophysicist)

Meghnad Saha was a brilliant Indian physicist and astronomer who is best known for his pioneering work on the thermal ionization of gases. He was born on October 6, 1893, in Shaoratoli, a small village in the district of Dhaka in present-day Bangladesh. Saha’s father Jagannath Saha was a poor grocer, and his mother, Bhubaneshwari Devi, was a housewife.

Early Life and Education

Despite his family’s limited financial means, Saha received a good education. He studied at Dhaka Collegiate School, where he excelled in mathematics and science. After completing his school education, he moved to Calcutta (now Kolkata) to pursue higher education. In 1911, he enrolled at Presidency College, where he studied under the eminent physicist and mathematician Jagadish Chandra Bose.

Saha graduated from Presidency College with a degree in mathematics in 1913. He then joined the University of Calcutta, where he studied physics and earned a master’s degree in 1915. Saha’s academic performance was outstanding, and he was awarded a gold medal for his outstanding academic achievements.

Career and Research

After completing his studies, Saha worked as a lecturer at the University of Calcutta. He was also a fellow of the Royal Society of London, which enabled him to travel to the UK and work with some of the leading scientists of his time.

Saha’s research focused on the ionization of gases, and he is best known for his work on the thermal ionization of elements. He was able to explain the observed spectral lines of stars in terms of the ionization of gases in their atmospheres. Saha’s work laid the foundation for modern astrophysics and was later used by Arthur Eddington to develop the theory of stellar structure.

Saha’s work on the ionization of gases also had practical applications. He was able to explain the phenomenon of flame coloration in terms of the ionization of elements in the flame. This work has been used in the analysis of materials and in the design of analytical instruments such as flame photometers.

Biography of Meghnad Saha

In addition to his work on ionization, Saha also made significant contributions to the theory of radiation. He derived an equation that describes the radiation emitted by a blackbody, which is now known as the Saha equation. This equation is fundamental to our understanding of the behavior of stars and other astronomical objects.

Saha was also interested in the development of science education in India. He believed that scientific research should be accompanied by efforts to popularize science among the masses. He founded the Indian Science News Association in 1924, which published popular science articles in Hindi and other Indian languages.

Awards and Honors

Saha received numerous awards and honors for his contributions to science. In 1927, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. In 1930, he was awarded the prestigious Hughes Medal by the Royal Society for his work on the ionization of gases. In 1932, he was elected as a member of the International Astronomical Union.

Saha was also a recipient of the Padma Bhushan, one of India’s highest civilian awards. In 1957, he was awarded the prestigious Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian honor. Saha was the first scientist to receive this award.

Later Life and Legacy

Saha continued to work on scientific research until his death. He died on February 16, 1956, at the age of 62, after suffering a heart attack. At the time of his death, he was serving as the president of the Indian Science Congress Association.

Saha’s contributions to science have had a profound impact on us


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