Biography Of Antoine Lavoisier
Lavoisier, a French chemist, was a major figure in the 18th-century chemical revolution. He was a pioneer in the discovery of oxygen and hydrogen, and also discovered the role of oxygen as a catalyst for combustion. Lavoisier brought a new scientific rigor and method to the study of chemistry. He used quantitative methods instead of relying on hypotheses. He compiled a list and contributed to the construction of the metric system. Lavoisier, with the help of other scientists, was able to combine these elements into a new common framework that broke with old classical beliefs. Lavoisier was the pioneer of modern chemistry.
Lavoisier, a French noble and wealthy, used his Ferme Generale position to finance both his chemistry experiments as well as his social work. Despite his efforts in water sanitation, agriculture, and street lighting, his position within the hated Ferme Generale made Lavoisier a target during France’s Revolution. He was convicted of tax fraud and selling adulterated tobacco.
Lavoisier was born to a French noble family in Paris, on 26 August 1743. He was five years old when his mother died. However, he was very wealthy because he inherited her wealth. He attended the College des Quatre-Nations University of Paris and became fascinated by the sciences of astronomy, chemistry, and botany. He studied law after college but, despite being admitted to practice as a lawyer, never actually did so.
Lavoisier was more passionate about pursuing his interests in chemistry, geology, and the natural sciences. The ideals of the French Enlightenment influenced him. Etienne Condillac was the one who influenced his interest in chemistry. Lavoisier was also interested in social welfare issues. Lavoisier used his time and fortune to address some of the most pressing social issues of the day. He wrote an essay about street lighting in 1765 that was highly praised by the King. He proposed an aqueduct in 1768 to provide clean water for Parisians. He began to investigate the possibility of purifying the water, something relevant to his chemical knowledge.
Lavoisier made other contributions, including suggestions for improving prison hygiene and the effects of gunpowder on air quality. He prepared 1772 a study to determine how to improve the airflow at the Hotel-Dieu hospital, which was being rebuilt.
Biography Of Antoine Lavoisier
Lavoisier also purchased a share of the Ferme general. This tax collection organization collected taxes on behalf of the King – and was hated for its power abuses and inability to collect taxes. Lavoisier ordered the construction of a wall around Paris to collect customs taxes.
He married Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze in 1771. She was only 13 years old at the time and was another member of the nobility. Despite her youth, she played an important part in his scientific career. She translated many scientific documents from English into French. She was also a support to his laboratory work.
Ferme Generale’s monopoly over the distribution of tobacco was an important business. Lavoisier developed a method to detect and improve the quality of tobacco. He set higher standards for tobacco and prohibited its adulteration. He was not popular with tobacco retailers, and this would be used against him during the French Revolution.
Lavoisier was a financier of the Revolutionary Paper run by Pierre S. DuPont. He also chaired the 1791 Commission on the introduction of a new metric system. He was eventually removed from office due to political reasons. The French Revolution was gaining momentum and there was a growing persecution of those who were associated with the old regime. He was taken into custody along with other tax farmers on 24 November 1793. They were accused of fraud and adulterating tobacco. Lavoisier was sentenced to death at the guillotine after a summary trial.
As a chemist, you can work
Lavoisier tried to burn substances in 1772. Lavoisier discovered that sulfur and phosphorus could cause weight increases, which he blamed on metallic cases. He also repeated experiments by Joseph Black, a scientist who studied the burning of alkalies like chalk and quicklime. Lavoisier often repeated experiments by other scientists, though not always with proper attribution. This allowed him to gain a broad understanding of different chemistry experiments. He came up with different conclusions than the original scientists.
Lavoisier continued his experiments with lead and tin in 1774. These experiments were carried out in sealed containers by Lavoisier. The experiments led him to conclude that the weight increase of the metals was caused by a combination of atmospheric air and water. He met Joseph Priestley, an English scientist who was visiting Paris that year. Priestly had isolated oxygen, which he called ‘dephlogisticated Air’. This is an extremely pure form of oxygen.
Lavoisier was inspired by this meeting to continue investigating the property. This ‘pure oxygen’, which was found in Mercury calx, supported respiration as well as combustion. This element would be called oxygen in the Greeks. Lavoisier used the Greek word hydrogen to refer to hydrogen. He was able to create water by burning jets of oxygen and hydrogen. This was his first demonstration that water is not a fundamental element but is made up of two gases. He would also prove that oxygen is used in respiration, and the heat was produced by animals who inhaled this air.
Lavoisier’s meticulous experiments, which brought a new level of quantitative rigor to the experiments, were a significant contribution to the science and art of chemistry.
You can only trust facts. These are given to you by Nature and cannot be deceived. In every case, we should submit our reasoning to the experiment test and not rely on observation and experiment to find the truth. ”
Biography Of Antoine Lavoisier
Elements of Chemistry (1790).
His gasometer was developed by him, which can weigh elements and gases to an extremely fine level of detail. Later, he made cheaper versions for other chemists. He used this device to carefully weigh the products in sealed gasses so that no gases could escape. He discovered that matter can be altered in chemical reactions, but nothing is lost or gained. The net weight is the same. This means that matter simply changes its form. This is often referred to as Lavoisier’s Law, which can be paraphrased as “Rien se perd,rien ne cree, tout se transformer” (“Nothing is lost. Nothing is created. Everything is transformed.”)
“We can lay it down as an incontrovertible axiom that in all the operations of art and nature, there is no creation; an equal amount of matter exists before and after the experiment; quality and quantity of elements remain the same; nothing happens beyond modifications to the combination of these elements.”
Antoine Lavoisier Elements of Chemistry (1790), p. 226
A new classification system for chemical elements was another pioneering innovation in chemistry. The basic categories of elements that existed up until then were very broad and had not changed much since Aristotle’s time – earth, fire, water, and air. Lavoisier, however, was well aware of the serious limitations of this. He compiled a list with scientists of 55 substances that could not be broken down into simpler elements. These elements were the gases oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. These elements also included acids, alkalies, and organic acids.
Lavoisier’s quantification, and the law for the conservation of matter, were controversial because they challenged the orthodox beliefs held by other scientists. While Lavoisier did not dispute his experiments, others scientists disagreed with his reasoning. Lavoisier’s new methods and ideas for practicing chemistry quickly spread.
He published Traite elementaire de Chimie in 1789. This used his new terminology and is considered to be the first chemistry textbook. Although some of its conclusions were rejected by older scientists, it was eventually translated into English. It became a standard reference point for future generations.
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